History of the Talmud XV:

Emancipation gave rise to Reform Judaism, which rejected many traditions, even including biblical laws which were considered ancient and unsuited to modern life. A more moderate approach to adjustment of Jewish faith and practice to modern life was the development of Conservative Judaism, which tries to maintain many of the elements of Jewish tradition. From […]

History of the Talmud XIV:

Charlemagne, now ruler of all of Western Europe, was master of a kingdom that had fallen very low culturally as well as economically. The successive invasions of the so-called “Barbarians” of Northern Europe, whose leading tribes. Among oihers, were the Goths, the Vandals and the Lombards, had reduced what had been the glory of ancient […]

History of the Talmud XIII:

In the year 711 the Moslems of Morocco, led by Tariq, invaded the Iberian Peninsula, and Spain became an Arab-Moslem Kingdom. Thus, from the beginning of the eighth century, the Arabic-speaking Moslem world extended from Babylonia in the East to the Atlantic shores of North Africa and Spain in the West. All of these lands […]

History of the Talmud XII:

48. The sealing and recording of the Jerusalem Talmud. 425 C.E. The reasons that led to the recording and sealing of the Jerusalem Talmud are clear for everyone to see. It is the result of imperial decisions recorded in the Christian Roman Constitution known as the Theodosian Code. In that year an imperial order decreed […]

History of the Talmud XI:

Because the Palestinian Talmud was growing and developing in the Roman Empire, it absorbed more Greek and Latin vocabulary. The Babylonian Talmud, on the other hand, on addition to the many Greek and Latin terms found in the Mishnah, added a larger proportion of Babylonian and Persian words to its linguistic store. 43. When we […]

History of the Talmud X:

34. The Aramaic Language. Its growth and spread: 600 B.C.E. to 650 C.E. From Babylonia to Egypt, all the peoples from the borders of Iran to Egypt became speakers of Aramaic during this period. It was the dominant language in the land of Israel at the beginning of the Common Era, although many Jews still […]

History of the Talmud IX:

The First Jewish-Roman War. 66-73 C.E. As the rebels in Jerusalem were preparing to fight the Romans, the Emperor Nero sent one of his military commanders, Vespasianus Flavius to Judea with an army to confront the rebels in Jerusalem. Rabban Johanan Ben-Zakkai. Head of the Sanhedrin, approached Vespasian and convinced him that it would be […]

History of the Talmud VIII:

20. Jewish Autonomy throughout history: The Jewish legal system. The Tannaim: Tana, a word of Aramaic origin, is the title given to the lawyers, judges, and legal scholars of the Jewish community who laid the foundations of the Torah Shè-Be-Al Pè, the so-called “Oral Law.” Shimon Ha-Tzaddik, Simon the Just was one of the last […]

History of the Talmud VII:

The Maccabean Rebellion The events surrounding the wars fought by the Jewish People known as the “Maccabean Rebellion,” with which most of us are familiar as the prelude to the Festival of Hanukkah, are more significant a factor in Jewish history than the declaration of the holiday itself. The events were critical to the development […]

History of the Talmud VI:

24. Alexandria, Egypt and its Jewish Community. One of the interesting and intriguing features of Alexandria at its peak was the fact that more than one-quarter of its inhabitants were Jews. If we should ask where they all came from, the answer should not be difficult to find. The explosive growth of the economy of […]

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