The First Jewish-Roman War. 66-73 C.E.
As the rebels in Jerusalem were preparing to fight the Romans, the Emperor Nero sent one of his military commanders, Vespasianus Flavius to Judea with an army to confront the rebels in Jerusalem. Rabban Johanan Ben-Zakkai. Head of the Sanhedrin, approached Vespasian and convinced him that it would be best for the Roman authorities as well as the Jewish People to move the Sanhedrin from the danger that confronted Jerusalem to a safe sanctuary where they could continue their work and maintain the Jewish legal system on which the order of society depended.
Thus was the Sanhedrin moved to the town of Yavneh, which was under the protection of the Roman armies and continued to function there, thus maintaining undisturbed continuity of the work of the Sanhedrin .
26. The rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire from 70 to 130.
27. Rabbi Akivah and the Bar-Kokhba Rebellion 132-135.
The role of the Emperor Hadrian and the role of the Christians
28. Rabbi Akivah and his associates and the beginnings of the Mishnah
Rabbi Meir and his associates
Reasons for the decision to commit the Oral Law to written form in the Mishnah. Sense of impending danger.
29. Continuation of the Sanhedrin, but in the cities of Galilee, primarily in Tiberias and Zippori.
30. Rabbi Yehudah Ha-Nasi, the Patriarch, the President of the Sanhedrin.
the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius
The final edition of the Mishnah – 200 C.E.
Organization of the Mishnah: Shishah Sedarim – The Six Orders
I. Zera’aim – Agriculture- First volume Berakhot.
II. Mo’ed – Festivals and Holidays
III. Nashim – Domestic Relations
IV. Nezikim – Torts-Contracts-Civil and Criminal Law
V. Kodashim – Holy Things – Temple – Sacrifices & Hullin
VI. Taharot – Hygiene Purification – and Related Matters
The Tannaitic Literature: Mishnah, Tosefta, Baraita
Mekhilkta on Shemot, Sifra on Vayikra
and Sifré on Bamidvar and Devarim.
31. The split between Babylonia and Eretz Yisrael in the year 200
Rav and Shmuel and the establishment of schools and courts in Babylonia. Separate, but not in opposition. The reasons.
32. Language of the Mishnah and all other Tanaaitic literature.
Hebrew, the Language of the Bible. The language of Israel.
Rabbi Yehudah Ha-Nasi and his insistence that Hebrew be the language of Jewish Law. It was the language of the courts, and thus the language of all the Tannaitic literature.
A normal phenomenon in human relations is the adoption of certain elements of vocabulary when two or more languages are in close contact. Wherever two groups speaking unrelated languages are in close proximity, each with adopt words from the other; it is all but unavoidable. Thus, in the case of Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic spoken in the Roman Empire, it was all but inevitable that both of these Jewish languages should borrow and adopt Greek and Latin vocabulary from the Greek and Latin speaking people with whom, they were in close contact. Because the dominant language in the eastern regions of the Roman Empire was Greek, there is a larger Greek vocabulary in the languages spoken by the Jews. Many of these words having been adopted became, in the course of time, normal components of the Hebrew language.
33. What is the meaning of the term Tanna? It is the title applied to all those who are mentioned in the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the other bodies of literature created during the period of the Mishnah.